The Names and Attributes of Allah

The Names and Attributes of AllahAllah has described Himself in the Quran through His Names and Attributes. Muslims believe that studying these Names and Attributes is one of the most effective ways of strengthening one's relationship with God. Each Name and Attribute nourishes a kind of consciousness and humility in man and their study leads one to constantly better their actions.

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ

The most beautiful names belong to Allah: so call on Him by them.
[Surah Al-A'raf 7:180]
Muslims are asked to call upon God during their supplications by the most appropriate names that relate to
what they are asking for. For example, if one is seeking forgiveness from God for a sin they have committed, they would call upon Him by His name "Al-Ghaffar," meaning "The Ever Forgiving." If one is asking for peace and tranquility in their life while experiencing a period of tension, they would call on God by His name "As-Salaam," meaning, "The Source of Peace."

The table below captures an approximate translation of a selection of Allah's names as found in the Quran. We have chosen to provide some commentary on His names relating to Mercy. However, each of the names listed could be the subject of its own article.

Names Relating to Mercy

The primary Names of Allah specifically dealing with mercy are "Ar-Rahmān" and "Ar-Rahīm." These two names frequently occur together in the Qur'an. They are both derived from the same root word rahmah which means mercy and also has elements of sympathy, kindness, gentleness, compassion and love intertwined with it. As with all the Names of Allah, these are Names of majesty and perfection. Allah therefore manifests these qualities to the most perfect level with His Creation. Ar-Rahman signifies a flood of mercy that covers us and is endless.

The mercy we see in this world which Allah has put among His creation is just a hundredth of all His mercy. Examples of mercy that we see in His creation includes the love a mother has for her child, human and otherwise, the eyes with which we are able to see, the food which we are provided to consume, the generosity and kindness we show to others. Can we image what life would be like if these things, that we often take for granted, did not exist? When we realize that this is only a small portion of His Mercy, we learn to better appreciate, although we cannot comprehend, the extent of His mercy. The other 99 parts are for the Day of Judgment and the Hereafter, when God provides shade for the believers, makes their accounting easy, and admits them to Paradise.

Allah's mercy comes before and prevails over His Anger. We take refuge in His mercy from His wrath.

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِن رَّحْمَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

Say: O My servants who have acted extravagantly against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah; surely Allah forgives the faults altogether. Surely, He is the Forgiving the Merciful.

[Surah Az-Zumar 39:53]

Allah's name "Al-Ghaffar", meaning "The Ever Forgiving", is related to His Mercy. If one is sincere in asking for forgiveness from Allah, there is no sin that it too great for Him to forgive. When asking for forgiveness, a person would ask directly of God and there is no intermediary or religious cleric that would intervene. Islam has the principle that one has a direct relationship with God and one should learn to have dependence, faith and trust in Him for all their affairs.

The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is reported to have said that no man's good deeds are alone enough to get him admitted into Paradise, but it is only by the mercy of Allah that people will enter Paradise. Our deeds are a tool to get close to Allah to a place where we can be hopeful of His mercy.

Some other Names of Allah that are related to His Mercy (with rough translations) are Al-Karīm (the Generous), Al-Halīm (the Forbearing), Al-Barr (the Generous), Al-Jawwād (the Bestower of Good), Ar-Rauf (the Kind) and Al-Wahhāb (the Bestower).

# Arabic Transliteration Translation (can vary based on context) Qur'anic Usage

1 الرحمن Ar-Rahman The All Beneficent, The Most Merciful in Essence, The Compassionate, The Most Gracious.
2 الرحيم Ar-Rahim The Most Merciful, The Most Merciful in Actions Beginning of every chapter except one, and in numerous other places
3 الملك Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign, The True and Ultimate King 59:23, 20:114
4 القدوس Al-Quddus The Most Holy, The Most Pure, The Most Perfect 59:23, 62:1
5 السلام As-Salaam The Peace and Blessing, The Source of Peace and Safety, The Most Perfect 59:23
6 المؤمن Al-Mu'min The Guarantor, The Self Affirming, The Granter of Security, The Affirmer of Truth 59:23
7 المهيمن Al-Muhaymin The Guardian, The Preserver, The Overseeing Protector 59:23
8 العزيز Al-Aziz The Almighty, The Self Sufficient, The Most Honorable 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23
9 الجبار Al-Jabbar The Powerful, The Irresistible, The Compeller, The Most Lofty, The Restorer/Improver of Affairs 59:23
10 المتكبر Al-Mutakabbir The Tremendous 59:23
11 الخالق Al-Khaliq The Creator 6:102, 13:16, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24
12 البارئ Al-Bari' The Rightful 59:24
13 المصور Al-Musawwir The Fashioner of Forms 59:24
14 الغفار Al-Ghaffar The Ever Forgiving 20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10
15 القهار Al-Qahhar The All Compelling Subduer 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16
16 الوهاب Al-Wahhab The Bestower 3:8, 38:9, 38:35
17 الرزاق Ar-Razzaq The Ever Providing 51:58
18 الفتاح Al-Fattah The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26
19 العليم Al-Alim The All Knowing, The Omniscient 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40
20 القابض Al-Qabid The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245
21 الباسط Al-Basit The Expander, The Munificent 2:245
22 الخافض Al-Khafid The Abaser 95:5
23 الرافع Ar-Rafi'e The Exalter 58:11, 6:83
24 المعز Al-Mu'ezz The Giver of Honour 3:26
25 المذل Al-Mudhell The Giver of Dishonour 3:26
26 السميع As-Sami'e The All Hearing 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1
27 البصير Al-Basir The All Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27
28 الحكم Al-Hakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69
29 العدل Al-'Adl The Utterly Just 6:115
30 اللطيف Al-Lateef The Subtly Kind 6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34
31 الخبير Al-Khabeer The All Aware 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18
32 الحليم Al-Haleem The Forbearing, The Indulgent 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41
33 العظيم Al-Azeem The Magnificent, The Infinite 2:255, 42:4, 56:96
34 الغفور Al-Ghafoor The All Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32
35 الشكور Ash-Shakoor The Grateful 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17
36 العلي Al-Aliyy The Sublimely Exalted 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51
37 الكبير Al-Kabeer The Great 13:9, 22:62, 31:30
38 الحفيظ Al-Hafeez The Preserver 11:57, 34:21, 42:6
39 المقيت Al-Muqeet The Nourisher 4:85
40 الحسيب Al-Hasib The Reckoner 4:6, 4:86, 33:39
41 الجليل Al-Jaleel The Majestic 55:27, 39:14, 7:143
42 الكريم Al-Karim The Bountiful, The Generous 27:40, 82:6
43 الرقيب Ar-Raqib The Watchful 4:1, 5:117
44 المجيب Al-Mujib The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61
45 الواسع Al-Wasse'e The Vast, The All Encompassing 2:268, 3:73, 5:54
46 الحكيم Al-Hakeem The Wise 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2
47 الودود Al-Wadud The Loving, The Kind One 11:90, 85:14
48 المجيد Al-Majeed The All Glorious 11:73
49 الباعث Al-Ba'ith The Raiser of The Dead 22:7
50 الشهيد Ash-Shaheed The Witness 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28
51 الحق Al-Haqq The Truth, The Real 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25
52 الوكيل Al-Wakeel The Trustee, The Dependable 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9
53 القوى Al-Qawee The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25
54 المتين Al-Mateen The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58
55 الولى Al-Walee The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19
56 الحميد Al-Hamid The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42
57 المحصى Al-Muhsi The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29, 82:10-12
58 المبدئ Al-Mubdi' The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
59 المعيد Al-Mu'id The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
60 المحيى Al-Muhyi The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2
61 المميت Al-Mumit The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2
62 الحي Al-Hayy The Ever Living 2:255, 3:2, 25:58, 40:65
63 القيوم Al-Qayyum The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All 2:255, 3:2, 20:111
64 الواجد Al-Wajid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44
65 الماجد Al-Majid The Illustrious, The Magnificent 85:15, 11:73,
66 الواحد Al-Wahid The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity 2:163, 5:73, 9:31, 18:110
67 الاحد Al-Ahad The One, the All Inclusive, The Indivisible 112:1
68 الصمد As-Samad The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable,The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting 112:2
69 القادر Al-Qadir The All Able 6:65, 36:81, 46:33, 75:40
70 المقتدر Al-Muqtadir The All Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 54:55
71 المقدم Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61, 17:34,
72 المؤخر Al-Mu'akhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4
73 الأول Al-Awwal The First 57:3
74 الأخر Al-Akhir The Last 57:3
75 الظاهر Az-Zahir The Manifest, The All Victorious 57:3
76 الباطن Al-Batin The Hidden, The All Encompassing 57:3
77 الوالي Al-Waali The Patron 13:11, 22:7
78 المتعالي Al-Muta'ali The Self Exalted 13:9
79 البر Al-Barr The Most Kind and Righteous 52:28
80 التواب At-Tawwab The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3
81 المنتقم Al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16
82 العفو Al-'Afuww The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins 4:99, 4:149, 22:60
83 الرؤوف Ar-Ra'uf The Compassionate, The All Pitying 3:30, 9:117, 57:9, 59:10
84 مالك الملك Malik-al-Mulk The Owner of All Sovereignty 3:26
85 ذو الجلال والإكرام Dhu-al-Jalaliwa-al-Ikram The Lord of Majesty and Generosity 55:27, 55:78
86 المقسط Al-Muqsit The Equitable, The Requiter 7:29, 3:18
87 الجامع Al-Jami'e The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9
88 الغني Al-Ghani The All Rich, The Independent 3:97, 39:7, 47:38, 57:24
89 المغني Al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28
90 المانع Al-Mani'e The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender 67:21
91 الضار Ad-Darr The Distressor, The Harmer, The AfflictorThis attribute can only be found in hadith 6:17
92 النافع An-Nafi'e The Propitious, The Benefactor
93 النور An-Nur The Light 24:35
94 الهادي Al-Hadi The Guide 25:31
95 البديع Al-Badi The Incomparable, The Originator 2:117, 6:101
96 الباقي Al-Baqi The Ever Enduring and Immutable
97 الوارث Al-Warith The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23
98 الرشيد Ar-Rashid The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower 2:256
99 الصبور As-Sabur The Patient, The Timeless.